Thursday, June 22, 2017

Introduction to Arabic: Day 4 - Passive Participle Ism al Maf'ul - إسم المفعول

إسم المفعول - Ism/isim al Maf'ul, is an object, or the person who receives the action

We have started with Verb - فعل
From فعل , we will be able to derive the noun or doer from the verb to فاعل
From فعل , we will be able to derive the object or past participle (pp)  from the verb to مفعول, the receiver

In English, we have "write" as the verb , convert to pp , it is "written", it is kind of similar concept in arabic as well.

Similar to The Doer, for  derivation, there are 2 type of rules applied.

  • 3 letters
    • Step 1 - from Madhi, add م at the beginning of the word, the original letter will now have a sukun harakah
    • Step 2 - add at the 2nd last letter, or in other word in between 2nd and 3rd
    • Step 3 - the last harakah now becomes dhommatun

  • >3 letters
    • Step 1- Find out the mudhori' form of the verb
    • Step 2 - Change the letter ي to   م
    • Step 3 - Change the harakah of the 2nd last letter to fathah

Derivation example for > than 3 letters verb

Monday, June 12, 2017

Introduction to Arabic: Day 3 Lesson - Making Nouns from Verb

By now, we know how to get 29 different verbs from one basic or root word given. Moving on...

إِسْمُ الفَاعِل - The Doer

In English, we have the verb derived into noun in these form: 

to write (verb)  >> writer  (person)
to read (verb)   >> reader  (person)

Similar concept applies in Arabic as well.  For 3 letters verb, the scale to follow is from the verb he did, فَعَلَ .  Observe the pattern of the derivation in the image, 

From here, the rule that we can deduce to change a verb to a person (for 3 letters only)
Step 1: add letter alif, ا to the first letter
Step 2: 2nd letter has to be a kasrah in harakah, retain or change the 2nd letter to kasrah 
Step 3: The last letter will have a dhommatun as its harakah

to make the noun female, add ة (ta marbutah) at the last letter

More example: 

    ضَرَبَ    >>      ضَارِبٌ     >>    ضَارِبَةٌ
 The Giver (female)            The Giver (male)                      He gave 

  فَتَحَ     >>      فَاتِحٌ      >>    فَاتِحَةٌ
The Opener (f)          The Opener (m)               He opened

Special verb -  نَاْمَ , he slept
For this one, we need to add a house for the letter alif, as alif alone cannot house a kasrah ... 

If we break down the verb  نَاْمَ , we will get  نَ , ا, م.  Following the steps/rules, we have to add alif to  نَ, make ا alif kasrah ...

 نَاْمَ >> نَائِمٌ                                          قَالَ >> قَائِلٌ

أكَلَ >> آكِل                                           دَرَسَ  >> دَارِسٌ

Making verb into person (doer) from root word with > 3 letters 

Step 1:  Find the مُضَارِع form of the verb 
Step 2: Change the letter ي to م

Root word , أَسْلَمَ , means to surrender/he surrendered

Checking the dictionary (or ask the teacher :)) to get the مُضَارِع tense for أَسْلَمَ

(أَسْلَمَ  (ماضِي)   -   يُسْلِمُ (مُضَارِع

to make the doer female, just add ةٌ (ta marbuthoh) to the last letter.  مُسْلِمٌ is for male and مُسْلِمَةٌ for female.

More examples :

sorry ... there is a missing dot on the letter ف  in the word فاعل 

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Introduction to Arabic: Practice

The only way to learn is to practice.. thus, I made an effort to write all the pronouns learnt and make columns/tables in my notebook. Then, I just looked up a verb in ماضِي from dictionary or the handout given by Al-Furqan and looked up its relevant مُضَارِع and أَمْرُ.

Some examples ...

I think I had these checked from doing it together in the class.... sorry if there's unintentional mistake :)